Political instability in the country as a negative factor in the development of the tourist sphere of the country (for example, the countries of North Africa) p1
Political instability in the country as a negative factor in the development of the tourism sector of the country (for example, North African countries)
The article deals with the peculiarities of the influence of political instability in the country on the development of its tourism sphere. The state of tourism in the North African countries in the pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary period is analyzed.
Keywords: North Africa, politics, revolution, tourism.
Formulation of the problem. Studying the components and aspects of the development of modern tourism, we are dealing with a complex system, the development of which is influenced by a large number of both internal and external factors. Of great importance in the development of tourism is social, economic, and in some cases, political stability in the middle of the country.
The issues of political stability are relevant to the different levels of socio-economic development of the countries of the world, as it directly affects the state of the economy’s sectors of the economy. This issue is especially relevant for countries whose economies depend on the development of the tourism sector, which brings the lion’s share of revenues to the country’s budget. In this case, the unstable political situation leads to a significant deterioration of the image of the country in the world, and if there are armed conflicts – to the loss of positions in the tourist market.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Scientists such as: Verdiyev RV, Karakhanyan DG, Melyantsev VA and others have devoted their problems to the development of tourist potential of the region.
Setting objectives. This article aims to consider the peculiarities of the development of the tourist sphere of the North African countries, based on the current political and socio-economic situation in them.
Outline of the main research material. The most striking influence of political instability in the country on the development of its tourism sphere can be traced to the example of North African countries (Fig. 1).
The countries of North Africa
Fig. 1. The countries of North Africa
Countries belonging to the region are characterized by considerable tourism potential, especially countries such as Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. The share of the tourism industry in their economies is quite significant and, in fact, forms the bulk of the state budget.
The North African region is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world. In the beginning of the century, Arab countries were visited annually by more than 27 million tourists. This is approximately 3.5% of the total number of foreign tourists in the world. Annually, the number of tourists arriving from abroad increased by 5-7%.
The formation of the tourism industry is one of the most promising areas of economic progress in developing countries. The diversification of national economies, the elimination of their close dependence on external factors, and the solution of a number of acute social problems in the perspective plans for the development of these countries are largely related to the tourism industry. it is of great importance in the field of employment, elimination or alleviation of such acute social problems as unemployment, which in most North African countries varies from 15 to 30% of the working population.
States such as Egypt and Tunisia are among those countries in North Africa where tourism is developing at the fastest pace. The tourism industry has become here one of the leading branches of the national economy, with its development related plans to lift the economy of the country.
International tourism is increasingly interacting with such areas of the economy as domestic and foreign trade in goods and services, advertising, business and cultural information exchange, hotel construction, construction of cultural sites, protection of monuments, preservation of existing ecosystems, transportation, construction of communications, education, banking, industrial and handicraft production, transfer of capital and labor, and so on.
That is why the recent revolutionary events in Tunisia and Egypt have hit the tourism sector of these countries most painfully. Thus, the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is of the opinion that Egypt will not be able to return to the group of countries leaders for the reception of foreign tourists for 3-4 years. In addition, if Egypt nevertheless establishes political, as well as socio-economic stability, it will be able to return to the level of tourism development in 2010 no earlier than 5 years.
Thus, the number of international tourist arrivals in the country decreased by 60% yet another 1 million tourists canceled their trips. According to the UNWTO, Egyptian hotel occupancy is no more than 30-40% in the Red Sea resorts and no more than 20% in Cairo, Luxor, Alexandria.